Showing posts from May, 2020


INTRODUCTION 1)- The three methods of metal cutting are abrasion,fusion and incision . i)- Abrasion:- In this method metal is cut in particles as filing,grinding etc. ii)- Fusion:- Cut any metal in middle by melting is called fusion method as welding are or gas cutting etc. iii)- Incision:- Cut any metal in thick chips convert in any shape as milling,shapes slot or work in lathe machine. 2)- Filling is a method for removing excess material from a work piece. 3)- Files are available in many shapes and sizes. 4)- Files are specified according to their length, grade, cut and shape .  Parts of a file:-   Tip or Point: -   the end opposite to tang.  Face or side: - The broad part of the file with teeth cut on its surface.  Edge:- The thin part of the file with a single row of parallel teeth. Heel:- The portion of the broad part without teeth.  Shoulder:- the curved part of the file separating.  tang: - from the body Tang The narrow and thin part of a file which fits into the handle.


INTRODUCTION:- i)- Everyday in a workshop to do holes is required so for that cutting tool is used known as drill. ii)- Tool used to make hole is called drill. iii)- It is made by high carbon steel or alloy steel. iv)- The drill  bit is rotated with a downward pressure causing the tool to penetrate into the material. The process for making hole in a job is called drilling operation. v)- There are three types of drills:- a)- Flat drill, b)- Straight fluted drill, c)- Twist fluted drill . a)- Flat drill:-   i)- It is made on high carbon steel and can be any size as per required. ii)- Its cutting angle is 90degree. and clearance angle is 30degree. iii)- It is mostly used in carpentry work. b)- Straight fluted drill:- i)- It is made on high carbon steel(HCS) and high speed steel(HSS). ii)- It is used for Rough drilling. iii)- The body of drill has two straight parallel flutes cut. c)- Twist fluted drill:- i)- It is modern type of drill bit is mostly used in every engineering workshop. ii)-


INTRODUCTION:- 1)- Removing of additional metal from the job on lathe is called turning operation. 2)- The following different types of operation are performed for different types of work. 3)- There are two types of operation done by lathe machine a)- Common or Standard Operation, b)- Special or Rare Operation. Common or Standard Operation:- 1. Facing,   2. Plain Turning,   3. Step Turning,   4. Eccentric Turning,   5. Taper Turning,   6. Boring,   7. Reaming,   8.Tapping,   9. Parting Off,   10. Knurling,   11. Form Turning.   12. Grooving and Under Cutting,   13. Thread Cutting. Special or Rare Operation: - This operation on lathe machine the job is gripped by the following methods:-                1. Grinding,   2. Copying,   3. Relieving,   4. Milling,   5. Key-way,   6. Spring Winding         7. Spinning.                                                   1) Facing:- i)- This is an operation of removing metal from the work face. ii)- The feeding tool at right angle to the


INTRODUCTION- i)-Centre lathe is a machine which  is used to a turning operation. ii)-We bring the raw material to the required shape and size by metal removal. iii)-This is done by feeding a cutting tool against the direction of rotation of the work. iv)- Its Work can be held help of chuck and face plate. v)- The Chuck and face plate are mounted on the front of spindle. vi)-The Cutting tool is fed against work after holding it in the tool post firmly. Safety to be observed while working on lathes There are three Safety to be observed while working on lathes. i)-Before starting the work. ii)- During work.   iii)- After work. 1 -Before starting the work - i)- The lubricating system is functioning ii)- The working area is clean and tidy. iii)-The meashing gears are in proper mesh and the power feed levers are in neutral position.   2 -During work- i)- Wear an appron which is not loose and have the sleeves folded. ii)- Avoid wearing ring or watches during working. iii)-

heat treatment fitter online note

INTRODUCTION i)-The structure of steel becomes visible when a piece of the metal is broken. ii)-The exact grain size and structure can be seen through a microscope. iii)-Steel is classified according to its structure. iv)-Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. But the carbon content in steel does not exceed 1.7%. v)- The heat treatment is a metal heating and cooling process. vi)- In this process the metal structure and internal stress and properties will be changed. Types of steel structure   1)-Ferrite - i)-It is almost pure from of an iron. ii)- It structure is soft and ductile. iii)- It has more magnetic properties. iv)- Pig iron or steel with 0% carbon is FERRITE 2)-Cementite i)- It is a chemical combination of iron and carbon it is called ‘iron carbide’ or CEMENTITE . ii)-This alloy is very hard and brittle but it is not strong. 3)-Eutectoid/Pearlite steel i)- It is a combination of ferrite and cementite ii)- A 0.88% ferrite and 12% cementite is known as PEARLITE OF-OUT SIDE MICROMETER-VERNIER MICROMETER-SCREW THREAD MICROMETER-FITTER ONLINE NOTE

INTRODUCTION 1-Micrometer is a precision measuring instrument. 2-Its accuracy is 0.01 mm or 0.001 inch. 3-Its working principal is NUT and BOLT. 4-Its available in difference size 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 ………… 125-150. 5-The different types of micrometer available in market.Outside       micrometer, Inside       micrometer.Depth Micrometer, Thread Micrometer.Vernier Micrometer. Parts of Micrometer – Frame, Anvil, Spindle, Sleeve and Barrel, Thimble, Luck Nut, Ratchet Stop. FRAME - 1)- It is made by drop-forged steel or malleable cast iron. 2)-All other parts attached to this frame. ANVIL - 1)-It is one of the measuring face. 2)-It is fixed by frame. 3)-It is made by alloy steel. SPINDLE - 1)-One end of the spindle is the measuring face. 2)-Other end is thread and passes through a nut. 3)-The thread mechanism allows for the forward and backward movement of the spindle. SLEEVE & BARREL -  1)- It is fixed to the frame. 2)- The datum line and graduation are marked on this. THIM


GRINDING -   1- Grinding is a finishing operation.  2- It is accuracy by removing the excess material. 3- Grinding is done on a grinding machine. 4- Which makes use of a grinding wheel rotating at a high speed to cut the material. SP ECIFICATION OF GRINDING WHEELS - A grinding wheel is specified by the standard wheel markings like diameter of the wheel, bore diameter of the wheel, thickness of the wheel type (Shape) of the wheel. Example (Marking system)51 - A 46 H8V 51- manufacture symbol for abrasive A - Type of abrasive grant size. 46 - Grain size H - Grade 8 - Structure manufacture own mark(optional) V - Type of bond. GRINDING WHEEL -    1- It is composed of abrasive particles. 2- A wheel and bonding material known as Binder. 3- There are two types of abrasive. NATURAL ABRASIVE AND                                                    ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVE. NATURAL ABRASIVE -     Its contain Emery, Sandstone,Corundum and Quartz. ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVE -   It is two typ

vernier height gauge, wrought iron, ferrous and non-ferrous metal

Vernier height gauge- 1 -   Vernier height gauge is a precision instrument. 2-   It is marking and height measuring instrument . 3-   Its accuracy is 0.02mm or 0.001inch. 4-   It is also used for measuring depth, with a depth attachment. 5-   Its parts is Beam , Base,   Main slide,   Jaw,   Jaw clamp,   Vernier scale,   Main scale,   Finer adjusting slide,   Finer adjusting nut,   Locking screws, L Scriber blade . 6-   Vernier height gauge is made of invarsteel/   stainless steel. Care and maintenance of vernier height gauge 1- It should be used by placing on surface plate. 2- Surface plate should be properly cleaned. 3- Reading should be noted down to avoid mistake. 4- When scribe bottom surface contact surface plate level then zero lines of vernier scale should contact with main scale, the zero reeor should be adjusted. You should regularly cheek the calibration of your height  gauge, to make sure that it is working correctly. Wrought iro